Sugarcane Crop Protection in Pakistan


Sugarcane Crop Diseases

Sucking Insects:

The mouth parts of sucking insects are developed for piercing and sucking. They damage plants by entering their mouth parts in plants and sucking all the juice from it.


Chewing Insects:

They have chewing mouth parts they damage plant by chewing their parts by biting and tearing and leaving damage leaf which cause stunted growth.


SUCKING INSECTS

1. EARLY SHOOT BORER
sugarcane insects early shoot borer
  • It is also known as Chilo infescatellus. Attacks the crop during the early part of cane growth, before internode formation. It also attacks the cane stalks in the years of scanty rainfall. Causes heavy yield losses as it affects the plant stand/unit area. It also leads to canes of different age, which will be poor in juice quality, with less cane weight. When borer infects cane stalks, both yield and quality are reduced.

SYMPTOMS

  • Larvae enter the cane laterally through one or more holes in the stalks (shoot) and bores downwards as well as upwards killing the growing point. Thus, it cuts of the central leaf spindle, which eventually dries forming a ‘dead heart'. The dead heart can be easily pulled out. It emits an offensive odour.
  • Larvae enter the cane laterally through one or more holes in the stalks (shoot) and bores downwards as well as upwards killing the growing point. Thus, it cuts of the central leaf spindle, which eventually dries forming a ‘dead heart'. The dead heart can be easily pulled out. It emits an offensive odour.
  • Borer infestation in cane stalks reduces both cane yield and quality.
2. INTERNODE BORER
sugarcane insects internod borer
It is also known as
    Chilo saccharifagus Indicus
  • Damages the crop soon after internode formation and its activity continues till harvest.
  • Lodging, high dosage of nitrogen, waterlogged condition and presence of water around shoots favour build up of pest.
  • Yield loss and juice quality deterioration occurs when the infestation is severe.

SYMPTOMS

  • Larvae enter the cane laterally through one or more holes in the stalks (shoot) and bores downwards as well as upwards killing the growing point. Thus, it cuts of the central leaf spindle, which eventually dries forming a ‘dead heart'. The dead heart can be easily pulled out. It emits an offensive odour.
  • Larvae enter the cane laterally through one or more holes in the stalks (shoot) and bores downwards as well as upwards killing the growing point. Thus, it cuts of the central leaf spindle, which eventually dries forming a ‘dead heart'. The dead heart can be easily pulled out. It emits an offensive odour.
  • Borer infestation in cane stalks reduces both cane yield and quality.
3. TOP SHOOT BORER
sugarcane insects top shoot borer
It is also known as
    Scirpophaga Nivella
  • As the name indicates the attack of this pest is mainly confined to the top portion of the shoot. Harm to the plant is caused mainly by the caterpillars. The growing point of the plant is seriously damaged due to boring and feeding by the caterpillars. As a result, the central whorl of unfurled leave dries up forming a characteristic “Dead heart”. The destruction to the growing point results in abnormal activation of the side buds just below the growing point leading to the formation of bunchy top.Generally, the newly hatched caterpillars penetrates into the mid rib from the underside of the leaf and bores downward towards the main stem or axil, After reaching the axil of the leaf, the larva comes out of the mid rib and bites into the whorl of newly emerged leaves forming the spindle. The characteristic effect of this action is series of shot holes of leaves. Now the larva enters into the spindle and moves down towards the growing point destroying the tender top portion of the plant.This results in formation of a small, slender, reddish brown dead heart. The characteristic effects of this pest are punctures on the leaves, death of the central shoot and formation of bunchy top. About 20-40% of destruction caused to the crop is due to this pest.
4. PYRILLA
sugarcane insects pyrilla
It is also known as
    Pyrilla.
  • Pyrilla is the most destructive foliage-sucking pest of sugarcane.
  • Heavy rainfall followed by 75-80% humidity, intermittent drought periods, high temperature (26-300c) and wind movement favours rapid build-up of the pest.
  • Cane yield loss is about 28% while 1.6% unit loss in sugar content.

SYMPTOMS

  • Adults and the nymps suck leaf sap from the under surface of the lower leaves.
  • When the infestation is heavy, leaves turn yellowish white and wither away
  • Due to continuous desapping by large number of hoppers top leaves in the affected canes dry up and lateral buds germinate. The hoppers exude a sweet sticky fluid known as honeydew, which promotes quick and luxuriant growth of the fungus, capanodium species and as a result the leaves are completely covered by the sooty mould.
5. SCALE INSECT
sugarcane insects scale
It is also known as
    Melanaspis glomerata.
  • Waterlogging, high temperature and humidity favour build-up of scale insect population
  • Rainwater and high wind velocity facilitate dispersal of the pest.
  • It spreads to new areas through seed material
  • Men and animals passing through the infested fields also lead to spread of the pest to the adjoining areas.
  • The yield loss could range from negligible to total crop failure.

SYMPTOMS

  • Scales usually establish on internodes covered with leaf sheath.
  • The leaves of infested canes show signs of tip drying and unhealthy pale green colour and with continued infestation these turn yellow.
  • Desapping leads to non-opening of leaves also, which also turn yellow and finally dry up

Sugarcane Crop Protection

Weed Control

Sugarcane is a perennial crop and remains 3-4 years in the same field. Therefore, all types of weeds, seasonal, annual and perennial or broad leaves or narrow leaves grow in the field. These compete with crop for nutrients, space and light. Weed creates a favorable environment for disease and insect development.


pakistan sugarcane pesticides


Common Weeds of Sugarcane

Euphorbia granulata (Hazardani), Rumex obtusifolius (Jangli palik), Tribulus terrestris (Bakhra), Scirpus maritimus (Deela), Cynodon dactylon (Chabbar), Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Madhana), Cyperus rotundus (Morak - Kabah), Trianthema portulacastrum (Itsit), Digitaria sanguinalis (Moti khabal), Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis L (Lehli/naro), Melilotus (Sinjhi) and Portulaca oleracea (Qulfa, Loonak).


Mechanical Weed Control

Fields are given a hoeing with help of khurpi (hand tool) or spade, after a month of sowing and the process is repeated frequently. Use the cultivator or local plough to destroy the weeds when the germination has been completed. After germination and tillering, (About 90 days after sowing) destroy the trenches by using cultivator or local plough. This method not only removes the weeds but also increases the sprouting and tillers and destroys insects and enhances aeration in the soil. Some growers make best use of this laborious operation by cultivation of second crop in between the sugarcane crop as a mixed crop.


Chemical Weed Control

Weeds Recommended Dose/acre Time of Application Company
Broad leaves, grasses & sedges Krismat 75WG 400 gm After first irrigation when soil is moist Syngenta
Waho, Bhurt, Lulur, Mandhano, Sawri, Lunak & Kal/Kabah
  • Dual Gold 960EC
  • Sunstar 15WG
  • 1000 ml
  • 100 gm
  • Within 24 hours after sowing (in ridges)
  • After 2nd irrigation when soil is moist and follow up irrigation 7 days after application
  • Syngenta
  • Bayer Crop Science

Diseases

  • Red rot
  • Whips smut
  • Mossaic virus
  • Ratoon stunting disease (RSD)

Control

  • Healthy seed
  • Resistance variety
  • Crop rotation

Insect Pest

  • Termite
  • Pyrilla
  • Milli bug
  • Red mites

Borers of Sugarcane

  • Stem borer
  • Top borer
  • Pink borer
  • Gurdas pur